Figs. 19 & 20. (Left & Right) These early anthropomorphic dummies,
manufactured by the Ted Smith Co., of Upper Darby, Pa., were used by the
Army Air Forces beginning in 1944. They were replaced by a more realistic
dummy in 1949.
(Right) "Oscar Eightball," the name given to this early model
anthropomorphic dummy by Col. John P. Stapp, is shown following a run of
the high-speed track at Muroc AAF (now Edwards AFB), Calif., in 1947.
(U.S. Air Force photos)