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Dynamic System Studies: Aerodynamic Studies

Report Number: WADC TR 54-250 Part 16
Author: Saarlas, M.
Author: Krzywoblocki, M.Z.
Corporate Author: University Of Chicago, University of Illinois
Laboratory: Aeronautical Research Laboratory
Date of Publication: 1956-09
Pages: 54
Contract: AF 33(038)-15068
Project: 7060
PB Number: PB121651
AD Number: AD0097261
Original AD Number: AD 97261

The trajectory of an air vehicle is determined by Newton's laws; it is necessary to know the aerodynamic forces to solve F = ma. The forces are composed of body forces (gravity and thrust) and the surface forces (air reactions) which depend on (1) kinematics (linear and angular velocities u, v, w, p, q, r), (2) geometry (body shape and control surface deflections δa, δe, δr), and (3) properties of the medium (density, pressure, temperature, viscosity, heat conductivity).  No general expressions for the forces are available.  General functional relations and the influence of the independent variables on the force and moment components are discussed.  The usual engineering approach in designing airplanes involves evolution of existing models based on empirical formulae and experience.  Expressions used in simulation are based on Taylor series and text measurements.  It is felt impractical and unnecessary to refine algebraic expressions for the force.  Present efforts are directed toward the electronic solution of the differential equations giving rise to the forces.  The goal is a mechanization of the appropriate equations of fluid motion, continuity, energy and state such as to provide continuous D.C. voltages representing the force and moment components, without the necessity of having exact explicit expressions for them.  Modern trends in fluid dynamics relevant to this goal are discussed.

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