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Fire Test Ratings for Shelter Components

Author: Hedge, J. C.
Author: Waterman, T. E.
Corporate Author: IIT Research Institute
Corporate Report Number: Final Technical Report Project J6132
Date of Publication: 1969-05
Pages: 56
Contract: N00228-68-C-0569
AD Number: AD0700940

The work described herein is concerned with providing interim guidance for assessing fire effects on shelters of the type to withstand 10 to 15 psi overpressures. Such shelters can be expected to be at or below grade, and to be constructed of reinforced concrete capable of resisting penetration. The work is directed toward assessing the heat transfer through concrete, and the penetration of fire gases through door assemblies, as a result of uncontrolled fire in contact with the shelter. Based on existing data for properties of concrete and characteristics of debris fires, a theoretical analysis is used to predict the heat loads imposed on shelters by debris fires above. Results are given for ranges of fire conditions, concrete properties, and concrete thickness, and a method is suggested for estimating cooling requirements needed to remove the fire-induced heat load. Experiments were performed with six door assemblies, similar in design to blast-resistant assemblies, in order to evaluate penetration of fire gases. Early experiments showed that bare steel doors, as well as doors protected only by insulative or ablative coverings, were rapidly distorted by heating so as to be unacceptable as barriers to fire gases. In later experiments, the design of a water-cooled door assembly was evolved, which is recommended for protection of shelter entryways from adjacent fires.

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